Aviator silver sunglasses are one of the major brands of silver sunglasses. Silver sunglasses have different categories: silver frame sunglasses and silver lens sunglasses. Silver frame sunglasses can be silver-made frames or silver-colored frames. When it comes to lens color, silver lens sunglasses are one of the common types. Actually, other colors of sunglasses lens are also in fashion, such as red, black, blue etc… And in particular, aviator silver sunglasses mainly fall into silver lens sunglasses. Silver-made frame sunglasses are seldom seen in aviator silver sunglasses.

The most popular aviator silver sunglasses are mirror aviator silver sunglasses. What does mirror mean? It means that mirror silver lens sunglasses can reflect all light, just like a mirror. Everyone knows that if you look into a mirror, you can see yourself. Mirror silver lens sunglasses create the same effects. This feature makes this type of sunglasses suitable for even the brightest sunny days. The classic mirror aviator silver sunglasses were firstly introduced by Ray Ban, and used by pilots. They became popular in the 1970s. Mainly, these silver sunglasses belong to the categories of Ray Ban 3025 and Ray Ban 3026. These designs are typically with large lens frame, separate nose pads, thin frame and a double bridge. This is one of the most common designs of Ray Ban.

Naturally aviator silver sunglasses are accompanied by silver-colored or silver-made frames. This is the most natural fashion. In fact, you can also find aviator silver lens sunglasses with dark colored frames, such as gray and black. Aviator silver sunglasses are also available in polarized type.


There are three types of eye professionals: optometrists, ophthalmologists and opticians, the former two of which are eye doctors.

An eye optician should only take an optician training program or a formal training. They are only licensed to fit and sell kinds of eyewear according to the prescription from an optometrist or an ophthalmologist.

Equivalent to a dentist in educational requirements, an optometrist must get a bachelor degree in science plus a four-year of post graduate training in optometry school. Today, optometrists in the United States are licensed to some clinical rights: vision examination, eyeglasses and contact lenses prescription, low vision care, vision therapy, pre- and post-operative care after a surgery and eye medications prescription. The last one is a recent expansion.

The education and training requirements of an ophthalmologist are similar to an oral surgeon, which add one year of internship and a minimum three years of hospital-based residency in ophthalmology to the requirement of an optometrist. Only an ophthalmologist is entitled to conduct an eye surgery.

If you just need a regular eye exam, it is your personal preference to choose an ophthalmologist or an optometrist. Although many optometrists cover the services including common eye problems and chronic eye diseases, such as dry eyes and glaucoma, only an ophthalmologist can provide complex diseases diagnosis and treatment, as well as eye surgeries. In this case, if you have been diagnosed with an unusual eye problem such as macular degeneration and cataracts, you’d better go to an ophthalmologist for professional treatment. Another common operation is co-management. If the patient’s problem is beyond his ability, an optometrist may refer to an ophthalmologist for medical treatment or a surgery, and then the patient is returned to the optometrist for further monitor and treatment.

Vision or health insurance is also an influential factor in choosing an optometrist or ophthalmologist, since they may be authorized eye care providers covered by the vision benefits. You can call the doctor’s office or find their information on the insurance company’s website. You should also be clear that whether you need to submit the insurance claim to the company after receiving eye care from the doctor, as well as the copayment issue. For old people, Medicare may also help in reducing eye care expense, although it does not cover routine eye exams. Under some situations such as insurance coverage and pre-existing eye problems, part of or entire eye exams may be covered.

The cooperation between your doctor and other medical and surgical specialists are also important, in case of some complex conditions. Your friends and colleagues may provide helpful recommendation in doctor selection.

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A corneal ulcer is one of the most common eye problems, which may be caused by a variety of reasons. Bacterial infections from eye injury and trauma are common causes of corneal ulcer symptoms such as red, painful eye, discharge and vision reduction. People wearing contact lenses are more probably to get eye irritation, from the lens’s rubbing the eye’s surface. Contact lenses wearers must take good hygiene.

Fungi and parasites are also commonly reported to cause corneal ulcers, such as Fusarium and Acanthamoeba. Fusarium is always associated with certain type of lenses solution that brings fungal keratitis outbreak and Acanthamoeba can be caused by swimming with contact lenses. Other reasons for corneal ulcers include herpes virus infection, dry eyes, eye allergies and immune system disorder.

An immediate visit to your doctor is necessary if you realize any sign of corneal ulcer. After you are diagnosed with certain type of cornea ulcer, you should visit your doctor every one to three days. The determination of ulcer type depends on its size and location. Ulcer on the central cornea is more bothersome that it may bring scarring and vision damage, even with proper treatment.

People with trauma experience are more likely to suffer from fungal keratitis caused ulcer, which may also contributed by an immune disorder. Fungal keratitis can be diagnosed with microscopic evaluation of specially stained specimens. Anti-fungal agents are always applied both topically and orally to treat this type of ulcer.


Cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis is an eye disease that closely relates to Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). CMV retinitis always invades the retina and affects the light-sensitive receptors, leading to acuity reduction and peripheral vision decrease. Without proper treatment, a detached retina and blindness can be caused within two to six months.

Statistics show that 80% of adults can protect themselves from the danger of CMV, which is a common virus. It is widely known that people with AIDS have ineffective immune system, so that they can not fight against CMV. In the past, CMV retinitis bothered a quarter of AIDS patients, while now the number has been lowered to 5%, due to the use of potent combination of drugs.

CMV can also be found on people with weakened or suppressed immune system at a lower rate. For example, these individuals who are undergoing chemotherapy or a bone marrow transplant also have fewer antibodies to CMV.

Untreated CMV retinitis can lead to vision loss by damaging the macula. Currently, there are a huge number of researchers that are searching out the progression of CMV retinitis, involving mechanisms of cell death. Present results show that CMV starts at the outer layer of the retina, and then invades deeper layers.

For CMV retinitis treatment, AIDS patients should visit a retina specialist every two to four weeks for primary disease control. During the following days, regular doctor’s visit every three months is enough.

The most thorough treatment is the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), which cures CMV retinitis from its root by suppressing the HIV. HAART can improve your immune system within a short period, which in turn controls the development of CMV retinitis. Certain patients may abnormally react to HAART and develop immune recovery uveitis, which is a severe inflammation.

There are also drugs to deal with CMV retinitis directly, including ganciclovir, foscarnet and cidofovir. Ganciclovir is available in forms of pill, intravenous infusion and intravitreal implant named Vitrasert. With unavoidable side effects, all these drugs are capable of slowing down CMV progression.


Good vision such as 20/20 does not mean satisfying contrast sensitivity. Common vision tests using black letters or numbers displayed against white backgrounds can not reflect your exact contrast sensitivity, since the real world is filled with grey shades. So that special contrast sensitivity testing is necessary.

May eye diseases or conditions may cause poor contrast sensitivity, such as cataracts, glaucoma, and diabetic retinopathy, as well as the side effects from LASIK and PRK. People with low contrast sensitivity may have difficulty in some conditions, such as seeing traffic lights, spot other cars and pedestrians during night driving. Since these people have poor perception of objects that do not stand out from their backgrounds, they may even stumble when they fail to see similarly colored pavements.

The term “contrast sensitivity function” (CSF) is used to describe people’s low contrast seeing ability. A contrast sensitivity test may be included in a routine screening after the visual acuity test, which measures the ability of seeing detailed letters or numbers. With your eyeglasses or contacts lenses wearing on, your eyes will be tested in together by a low-contrast test chart, which consists of bars and dots in different colored contrasts that are used to evaluate the patient’s exact CSF. Your CSF will certainly be affected by the sizes of objects: the larger the objects are, the higher CSF you can achieve.

By testing your eyes using bar and dot patterns displayed against varying contacts or intensities, your highest and lowest contrast sensitivity can be determined and plotted into a curve, which shows your contrast sensitivity readings. Tests under both bright and dark conditions can provide more detailed information about your images process capability.

As a volunteer, you can get a contrast sensitivity test as a necessary part of the evaluation of new ophthalmic devices such as LASIK excimer lasers and new intraocular lenses required by FDA. Once you are diagnosed with low contrast sensitivity, some remedies are available, depending on the source of the problem. Usually, artificial lenses with a yellow filter can improve contrast. If the low contrast sensitivity is caused by higher-order aberrations, wavefront lenses or LASIK are the right choices. Another option is intraocular lenses with yellow tints, which can also offset low contrast sensitivity.

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In the United States, more than a half of the 2.5 million glaucoma patients suffer from different degrees of vision loss. Resulted from internal eye pressure (IOP) built-up and optic nerve damage, glaucoma has been the second leading cause of blindness.

From the IOP accumulation and optic nerve damage to various degrees of vision loss, there are always no obvious symptoms so that glaucoma is often called the “silent thief of sight”. One exception may happen to acute angle-closure glaucoma, which bring blurry vision, halos, intense eye pain, nausea or vomiting.

Tonometers can measure your IOP either by resting a small probe or sending an air puff onto your eye’s surface. IOP above 30 mmHg indicates a problem of the amount of fluid in the eye and brings a much higher risk of developing glaucoma. Special eye drops are created to keep IOP low, which is a treatment for glaucoma.

Scanning laser polarimetry, optical coherence tomography and confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy can be used to monitor the progression of glaucoma by setting up baselines and detecting changes. Optic damage by glaucoma may bring blind spots, so that visual field tests can also be used to monitor glaucoma. And ophthalmoscope can be used to view your eye’s internal structures.

There are mainly two types of glaucoma: acute angle-closure glaucoma and chronic or primary open-angel glaucoma. Chronic glaucoma has no obvious symptoms during its process of decreasing your peripheral vision. The result is that you can only see objects straight ahead. Unlike primary open-angle glaucoma, another form of open-angle glaucoma has normal IOP level, which is called normal-tension glaucoma. This type of glaucoma has no other different features with primary open-angle glaucoma. Also called narrow angle glaucoma, angle-closure glaucoma brings unexpected symptoms such as eye pain, headaches, halos, red eye etc… These symptoms appear in certain periods.

Besides the above types of glaucoma, there are still other variations. Pigmentary glaucoma is caused by iris pigment deposits and clogs the draining angles. This form of glaucoma also has no clear symptoms. Secondary glaucoma is always associated with infection, inflammation or an enlarged cataract. Infants may be born with congenital glaucoma due to natural narrow angles. Parents should take good care of their babies’ eyes, in case of congenital glaucoma signs such as cloudy, white or hazy eye.

Eye drops with medication are used to control glaucoma by bringing down IOP. Careless use of these eye drops may bring higher risks of vision loss. Further treatments include glaucoma surgery, lasers and medications.


Also called corneal graft and penetrating keratoplasty, a cornea transplant replaces the damaged central corneal tissue with healthy corneal tissue. People with damaged corneal tissue have blurry vision or glary vision. It is estimated that about 40,000 people in the United States receive cornea transplant each year, 79% of which never suffer from graft rejection. Even if graft rejection occurs, it can be treated with successful management.

People with unhealthy cornea may have unsatisfying job performance. Their functional vision is also affected, which always can not be corrected by eyeglasses or contact lenses. There are many situations that require a cornea transplant, such as infection-caused scarring, keratoconus, hereditary factors, LASIK complications, chemical burns and excessive corneal swelling. Patients should also make a proper plan, since a cornea transplant needs a recovery period of six months to a year. Before receiving the surgery, you should also ask about the cost and potential vision benefits.

Healthy corneal tissue is supplied by a local eye bank, so that the recipient must wait for a donor eye. The donor cornea’s tissues must be meticulously screened for presence of diseases. A corneal transplant will be conducted on an outpatient basis and anesthesia is often used to relax the recipient’s eye muscles. During the two-hour surgery, a round, button-shaped corneal area will be removed and replaced with a nearly identical donor tissue. The smaller size of transplantation is the lower risk to cause irregular corneal shape. The patient’s eye should be shielded to avoid rubbing.

Graft rejection may happen at a low incidence after at least one month. Those early signs of graft rejection include redness, light sensitivity, decreased vision and pain. Medications are available to reverse the rejection process. The worst case is second cornea transplantation.

Most of the people can return to work within several days after the surgery if necessary, but they should be prohibited from heavy exercise and lifting during the first weeks. Patients should also protect eyes from external objects, since their eyes are fragile during the recovery period. The doctor will probably prescribe steroid eye drops to help the patient recover. The whole recovery process can last as long as a year. For those with low healing rate, stitches may be removed after 17 months.

Since the curve of the cornea transplant can not match exactly the curve of your existing cornea, corrective glasses are needed after a cornea transplant. And your vision will be stable after the healing process is finished, after which your eyewear’s prescription can be accurately determined. Most doctors recommend RGPs for patients after a cornea transplant, since their cornea’s surface may be slightly affected.


There are contacts lenses of all brands that can be bought in the market. However, Acuvue are just some of the most competitive ones. As Acuvue are the products of Vistakon, a subsidiary of Johnson & Johnson, few products can even compete with them. Nowadays, Vistakon has only two major competitors, namely, Bausch Lomb and CIBA Vision. That means that there only contact lenses produced by the two companies can compete with Acuvue. The reason is that since the day when Vistakon was launched in 1987, it had endeavored to the research of Acuvue lenses. Hence, Acuvue lenses are always the leading products in the contacts market.

People say that all Acuvue lenses are manufactured in America. But there is one exception—some Acuvue lenses are also produced in Ireland. In 1996, the mangers of Johnson & Johnson decided to launch a company in EU to expand their business of Acuvue lens. Then, the Acuvue lens company was called Vistakon Ireland, one of the 7 Johnson & Johnson subsidiaries in Ireland. Now Vistakon Ireland has become one of the major produce and trade centers of Accuvue lenses.

The year 1997 is very important for Accuvue lens, because it has witnessed a new epoch of contacts industry. In recent years, people began to pay attention to the side-effects of UV rays. Vistakon had considered all such problems. In 1997, Acuvue lenses that can block UV radiations were brought into the market. These Acuvue lenses had occasioned a revolution in contact lenses, and many companies had followed consequently. Even till now, one of the most overriding features of Acuvue lens is its capability of filtering out UV rays.

The year 2005 is very critical for Acuvue lens. Acuvue lens was approved by the FDA (Food and Drug Administration) in Dec, 2005. Such approval has made the promise that Acuvue lenses are extraordinarily safe to use.

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Vision plays an important role in children’s daily lives and study. With a good vision, children can perform much better. Generally, newborns can see objects only up close. When they are six months old, their visual acuity will be much sharper and they can have more accurate color vision.

Since children’s vision system is developing as they grow, early detection of some vision problems is very essential. As a caring parent, you may have worries such as when your kid should receive his first eye exam and what tests a comprehensive eye exam should include. Generally, your kid should have an eye exam at 6 months old. Vision screening may miss some vision problems.

When you choose eyeglasses or contact lenses for your kid, you’d better to consult the eye doctor. For the protection against harmful UV rays, sunglasses or some eyeglasses with UV protection may be recommended. When your kid uses computer, there are also some suggestions for eye care. Generally, your kid should get enough rest after staying 20-30 minutes in front of the computer.

If your child has a pet, you should take special precautions to eye problems. Dog’s and cat’s dander can cause eye allergies. Other pets such as reptiles and spiders can also cause some eye problems such as inflammation. So you need to pay more attention to potential consequences of your kid’s pet.


Cheap frames hereby do not just refer to frames of lower or the lowest price, but also with the same quality as the “expensive” ones or same products but higher price e.g. in retail divisions or specialty stores. Maybe you are confused and think it impossible now. But we will talk about how to find the cheap frame.

First, we can try to find manufacturers of the cheap frame directly. You know this is the basic way to cut some profits and cost off, just including their manufacturing benefits. And in this way, you don’t need to pay the retailers’ profits and all kinds of cost. Meanwhile, cheap frames are under the same quality control with others sold in retail divisions. And how can we find manufacturers for the cheap frame directly? You may visit some shopping sites like E-bay. There is a lot of information about manufacturers’ outlets of cheap frames. Then talk with them according to their contact information about the price to get these cheap frames.

Second, you can also find cheap frames from some online stores. As the online shopping is more and more popular, online stores are springing up like a mushroom. They are granted for lower price compared with products sold in brick and mortar stores since they don’t need to afford the cost of renting space, employees’ salary, warehousing and they can get cheap frames from manufacturers directly. Therefore, visiting some online stores is also a good choice to find the cheap frame.

Moreover, you can also visit the nearby wholesale stores to find the cheap frame after comparing cheap frames of different sellers on their quality and price. And more popularly you can try to buy the cheap frame from some overseas online factory outlets at the price which is only a fraction of what is being sold in this country.

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